Chromostereopsis – I just learned this word for visual illusions that convey an impression of depth. Artists have taken advantage of this property for eons. A discussion on dpreview about depth of field in captured images theorized that chromatic aberration from some lenses helped the perception of depth and even that perhaps humans and other animals have evolved to use chromatic aberration to their advantage. This information was deployed in to suggest that older less perfect camera lenses may actually contribute to the depth perception or 3D look, but I don’t know if it’s true or not. In the example image from wikipedia below – do you see the red letters on top come forward or go back? And the below the blue letters go deep or come forward? According to the wiki page some people see it one way, others the opposite. Read more on the link to the wiki page below the image.
Source: Chromostereopsis – Wikipedia